Coordinator:  Lena Costaridou


Lena Costaridou, Constantinos Koutsoyiannis, Thomas Maris, George Sakellaropoulos, Ioannis Seimenis, Stavros Tsiantis, Panayiotis Tsiganos


Physical principles of non-ionizing radiation, mechanisms of interaction with matter, including tissue, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Specifically, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), UltraSound (US) imaging and laser applications will be emphasized, including safety and Quality assurance (QA) issues. Health risk and international guidelines of all-types of non-ionizing radiation will be discussed.

Course Content


  1. Basic principles of NMR and MRI: NMR signal production, basic concepts of relaxation, image formation, data collection and image reconstruction, instrumentation, common MR image artifacts.
  2. Pulse sequences in MRI: Types of pulse sequences, differences between spin-echo and gradient-echo, factors affecting the choice of pulse sequence.
  3.  Advanced techniques and quantitative MRI: Ultrafast imaging methods, advanced imaging techniques (e.g. diffusion weighted imaging), introduction to quantitative MRI, a quantitative MRI example: MR mammography)
  4.  MRI safety: Risks in the MRI environment, patient and staff safety.
  5. Quality control: Guidelines, testing equipment, parameters tested.


  • Ultrasound Physics: Ultrasound waves, production and physical properties of ultrasound, ultrasound-tissue interactions (Reflection, refraction, scattering, absorption, attenuation, echogenicity, non-linear propagation.
  • Instrumentation and Transducers: Piezoelectricity, transducers, acoustic fields, ultrasonic pulses, PRF, frame rate, resolution, linear and convex transducers, phased arrays, focusing and beam steering, 2D matrix arrays, intracavity probes.
  • Imaging Techniques: A-, B- and M-mode, Elastography, Doppler Imaging,

3D Imaging.

  • Advanced Imaging Techniques: Contrast agent imaging, Doppler harmonic contrast, panoramic imaging, ultrafast imaging, pulse compression imaging, whole breast ultrasound imaging, breast elastography. Imaging artifacts(grating lobe, beam width, reverberation-comet tail, ring-down, mirror image, speed, refraction, shadowing).
  • Therapeutic Ultrasound: Lithotripsy, histotripsy, high-intensity focused ultrasound.
  • Safety and Quality Control: Guidelines, power and intensity measurements, mechanical index, thermal indices, testing equipment, phantoms and test objects.

Non-ionizing E/M Radiation

  1. Non-ionizing E/M radiation physics: types (visible light, Ultraviolet & Infrared radiation, Microwave radiation & Radio waves, lasers), physical properties, interaction with tissue, SAR. EMF simulation demonstration/exercise.
  2. Medical and non-medical applications: cancer treatment, surgery, ophthalmology, rehabilitation, cosmetic medicine, mobiles phone.
  3. Non-ionizing E/M radiation safety: health risks, guidelines, testing parameters and equipment.


Diagnostic radiology physics:  A handbook for teachers and students. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 2014

MRI from Picture to Proton. Donald W. McRobbieElizabeth A. MooreMartin J. GravesMartin R. Prince, Cambridge University Press Online 2009 ((2nd edition) ISBN: 9780511545405.

Diagnostic Ultrasound: Physics and Equipment, 2nd edition, Editors: Peter R. Hoskins, Kevin Martin, Abigail Thrush. Cambridge University Press, 2010; ISBN 978-0-521-75710-2.

Koutsojannis C.: Electromagnetic Radiation: History, Theory and Research, Nova Pubs, NY 2018; ISBN: 978-1-53614-331-7.

Lectures notes

Grading Policy: instrumentation/clinical demos, written examination.